Colosseum - Wiki to S5 (Proof of concept)

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Colosseum is a tool/script which convert a wiki page generated by MediaWiki to an S5 presentation. MediaWiki is the software on which wikis like Wikipedia runs. S5 is an HTML layout and code written by Eric A. Meyer to display presentation using a web browser.

Now the tool only convert a wiki page genarated by MediaWiki software, but it can be easily modified to use on other popular wikis like TWiki, DokuWiki, MoinMoin , Kwiki etc.

Slide Show as tab
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New "Slide Show" tab at top on an article.
Slide Show link
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New "Slide Show" link at the left navigation panel of an article.

I started writing this script before S5 1.1 with plan for using with all the above mentioned wikis but did not get time to complete to the perfectness I wold like to achieve. In 2005 December first week I got some time to convert my S5 1.0 compatible scripts to support S5 1.1, and is almost good enough to use. Keeping the scripts for ever with me to make a perfect one will not be good for the community so I am releasing it, for others to improve.


And you can TEST IT NOW !!!
Any loading issue? Please visit Point Loma and retry.

Any comments are welcome at User_talk:BijuGC (+Edit).

Known issue are, 1) script has to launch a new window to display the presentation. 2) if user click a link on the page to goto else where when he comes back, browser wont display the presentation. 3) First time loading has a cache issue which can be corrected user visit a simple page like Point Loma. 4) next is a S5 issue, there is no scroll bar for a long slide, I understand a presentation slide should not be long, but fact is many wiki sections are long, this can be resolved by user for the articles created for S5. I do have solution for this on new articles, see long slide issue

For code review you are very much welcome to see my S5 1.1 and S5 1.0 directories.

Why name Colosseum? In early days of my script, while searching Wikipedia for a good test sample I found Colosseum article. If I remember correct that day there was link from Main Page or from a page linked on Main Page to Colosseum. By the way this page is created from Wikipedia article Colosseum, to give look and feel of Wikipedia for testing.

Contents

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Wiki to S5 options

You can just click the "Slide Show" link on the tab at top or on the link at left side navigation box to see this page as a S5 presentation.

For using this on a wiki are the options.

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With a wiki2S5 bookmarklet

This is for once in a while use and for not regular use. This make use of the bookmarklet feature of your browser (what is bookmarklet).
  • Please right click on wiki2s5 bookmarklet and do "bookmark this link" or drag and drop it to your bookmark links tool bar. (S5 1.0)
  • Now if you go to a wiki like http://en.wikipedia.org/ and you are on a wiki article click the wiki2s5 bookmarklet from your browsers bookmark menu or bookmark toolbar.
  • You will see a "Slide Show" link on the navigation menu and the tab bar.
  • Click either of them to start S5 presentation

bookmarklet code

Warning: Accepting bookmarklet from untrusted source is dangers, as bookmarklet are capable of stealing browser settings or cookies.

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Adding a auto script on monobook.js

This is for those who are a member of the wiki community. Wikis like http://en.wikipedia.org/ alow you to run a custom script when you display a page. We are going to add a small javascript with that option.

  • Please login to your wiki site an go to your user page.
  • Now on address bar add "/monobook.js" to the end of page url
  • example "User:BijuXYZ" monobook.js page will look like http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:BijuXYZ/monobook.js
  • click Edit this page link
  • add following code and save it
  • Reload the page (best is to Clear browser cache)
  • You will see "Slide Show" link and tab
  • Click on "Slide Show" link or tab to begin presentation

Note: once saved your monobook.js should look like /monobook.js of mine (User:BijuGC)

Warning: Accepting scripts for monobook.js from untrusted source is dangers, as the script is capable of stealing your wiki or browser settings and cookies.

Adding settings and auto script on monobook.js

This option is for advanced users if they want change the behavior of my script. See the customizable settings on wiki2S5.

  • Please login to your wiki site an go to your user page.
  • Now on address bar add "/monobook.js" to the page url
  • example "User:BijuXYZ" page will look like http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:BijuXYZ/monobook.js
  • click “Edit this page” link
  • add mbook code and save it
  • Reload the page (best is to Clear browser cache)
  • You will see "Slide Show" link and tab
  • Click on "Slide Show" link or tab to begin presentation

Warning: Accepting scripts for monobook.js from untrusted source is dangers, as the script is capable of stealing your wiki or browser settings and cookies.

The Colosseum in Rome, Italy: an exterior view of the best-preserved section.
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The Colosseum in Rome, Italy: an exterior view of the best-preserved section.
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Hosting complete script

This is for advanced users who want to host all script at another server or those who want to hack to their requirements.

  • download S5 1.0 from meyerweb.com (my mirror), wiki2s5.js and mbook.js) (for S5 1.0 use ui.zip, wiki2s5.js and mbook.js )
  • copy wiki2s5.js and mbook.js to the hosting dir (and for S5 1.0)
  • unzip S5 code to a sub dir named s5-11 (or ui for S5 1.0)
  • modify mbook.js to point to your server
  • also modify the bookmarklet
  • now you are set to go with any of the other above options.
  • You can also hack wiki software if you want to use this feature globally.
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Customize wiki to S5

to be written

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Resolve long slide issue

A simple way to achive this is to add blank headings like == == or === === or ==== ====

Another way is to add para with class name newslide like
<p class="newslide">The content of new slide</p>
or just a blank para like
<p class="newslide"><br/></p>

Example this and the previous para should appear on new slides.

Instead of P tag one could also use DIV, TABLE or any top level tag.

Construction

An interior of the Colosseum. The floor is modern reconstruction; below are the underground vaults and tunnels originally used to house animals and slaves.
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An interior of the Colosseum. The floor is modern reconstruction; below are the underground vaults and tunnels originally used to house animals and slaves.

The construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians believe that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand, presumably to allow the blood to drain away.

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Games

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals (see: Zoophilia: Roman games and circus) and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena) up until AD 81, and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that several hundreds of thousands died in the Colosseum games. Saint Ignatius of Antioch was martyred there.

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History of the name Colosseum

The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times by the head of succeeding emperors. At some time during the Middle Ages, the statue disappeared; experts suspect that, since the statue was bronze, it was melted down for reuse.

After the colossus' disposal, the link to it seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but Flavian Amphitheatre is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have come to use forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

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Description

The inner layers of the Colosseum, showing the construction of the outer layers.
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The inner layers of the Colosseum, showing the construction of the outer layers.

The Colosseum measures 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators; the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower-class women.

A small section of the spectators' walkway inside the Colosseum.
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A small section of the spectators' walkway inside the Colosseum.

After the Colosseum's first two years in operation, Vespasian's younger son (the newly-designated Emperor Domitian) ordered the construction of the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"), a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Numerous trap doors in the floor provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like.

Today the arena floor no longer exists, though the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the structure. The entire base of the Colosseum covers an area equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²). There are also tunnels, still in existence, configured to flood and evacuate water from the Colosseum floor, so that naval battles could be staged prior to the hypogeum's construction. Recent archaeological research has shown evidence of drain pipes connected to the City's sewer system and a large underground holding tank connected to a nearby aqueduct.

A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire, with Amphitheatrum Flavium at the upper right corner.
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A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire, with Amphitheatrum Flavium at the upper right corner.

Another innovative feature of the Colosseum was its cooling system, known as the valerium, which consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof covered two-thirds of the arena, and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors, standing on special platforms, manipulated the ropes on command. The Colosseum incorporated a number of vomitoria — passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in as little as 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase.

There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event, disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets (giving rise, presumably, to the name).

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Later history

The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress.

The marble that originally covered the façade was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; "What the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis" (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672–735) wrote:[1]

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome);
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome);
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus (When Rome falls, so shall the world).

Note the use of coliseus, i.e. which made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

A view of the Colosseum at night.
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A view of the Colosseum at night.

In 1749, in a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs.[2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In 2000 there was a diffused protest in Italy against the death penalty all over the world (in Italy it was abolished in 1948); several manifestations took place in front of the Colosseum. The illumination of the Colosseum is always on, and so it was at that time, but in that period, as a gesture against capital punishment, the local authorities of Rome changed the colour of the night time illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the death penalty anywhere in the world gets commuted or released. [3]

According to the current political division of the center of Rome, the Colosseum is placed in rione Monti.

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Hollywood and the Colosseum

The Colosseum has a prominent place in many motion pictures. In 1954's Demetrius and the Gladiators Emperor Caligula sentences the Christian Demetrius to fight in the Colosseum's gladiator games. In the Science Fiction film The Core, the Colosseum is destroyed by intense lightning strikes, which blast it to bits. In director Ridley Scott's 2000 film Gladiator, the Colosseum was re-created via computer-generated imagery (CGI) to "restore" it to the glory of its heyday in the 2nd century. However, many of the buildings depicted surrounding the colosseum never existed.

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Flora

Plants on the inner walls of the Colosseum
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Plants on the inner walls of the Colosseum

The Colosseum has a wide and well-documented history on the flora that grows in the amphitheatre. From 1643 on, when doctor Domenico Panaroli started to make a list of all plants in the Colosseum, there has been a total of 684 species. The peak was in 1855 (420 species), which decreased to 242 today. 200 of the species were present from the time that the first list was compiled through now.

The variety of different kinds of plants can be explained by the change of climate in Rome throughout the centuries. Bird migration, flower blooming, the growth of Rome that caused the Colosseum to not be on the outside skirts of the city anymore and deliberate transport of species are other ways to clearify the wide stream of plants.

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See also

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External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
also available for low bandwidth in java: http://rome.arounder.com/colosseo/java.html